Articles

Dr. Justin LaReau provides patients and professionals with important, up-to-date information regarding the latest in treatment options and innovations available to knee and hip patients.

Accuracy of Component Positioning in 1980 Total Hip Arthroplasties: A Comparative Analysis by Surgical Technique and Mode of Guidance.

The purpose of this multi-surgeon study was to assess and compare the accuracy of acetabular component placement, leg length discrepancy (LLD), and global offset difference (GOD) between six different surgical techniques and modes of guidance in total hip arthroplasty (THA). A total of 1980 THAs met inclusion criteria. Robotic- and navigation-guided techniques were more consistent than other techniques in placing the acetabular cup into Lewinnek’s safe zone (P<0.005 and P<0.05, respectively). Robotic-guided surgery was more consistent than other techniques in placing the acetabular component within Callanan's safe zone (P<0.005). No statistically significant differences were found between groups in the frequency of patients with excessive LLD. Clinically significant differences between groups were not found in the frequency of patients with excessive GOD. Continue reading

Is acetabular osteoplasty always required in mixed impingement?

Mixed femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is typically managed with both femoral and acetabular rim osteoplasties, but it has not been reported if the rim osteoplasty is always required. We hypothesized that mixed FAI managed by femoral or combined femoral and acetabular osteoplasties will both attain satisfactory clinical results, provided intraoperative impingement-free functional motion is attained. Continue reading

Spontaneous modular femoral head dissociation complicating total hip arthroplasty.

Modular femoral heads have been used successfully for many years in total hip arthroplasty. Few complications have been reported for the modular Morse taper connection between the femoral head and trunnion of the stem in metal-on-polyethylene bearings. Although there has always been some concern over the potential for fretting, corrosion, and generation of particulate debris at the modular junction, this was not considered a significant clinical problem. More recently, concern has increased because fretting and corrosive debris have resulted in rare cases of pain, adverse local tissue reaction, pseudotumor, and osteolysis. Larger femoral heads, which have gained popularity in total hip arthroplasty, are suspected to increase the potential for local and systemic complications of fretting, corrosion, and generation of metal ions because of greater torque at the modular junction. A less common complication is dissociation of the modular femoral heads. Morse taper dissociation has been reported in the literature, mainly in association with a traumatic event, such as closed reduction of a dislocation or fatigue fracture of the femoral neck of a prosthesis. This report describes 3 cases of spontaneous dissociation of the modular prosthetic femoral head from the trunnion of the same tapered titanium stem because of fretting and wear of the Morse taper in a metal-on-polyethylene bearing. Continued clinical and scientific research on Morse taper junctions is warranted to identify and prioritize implant and surgical factors that lead to this and other types of trunnion failure to minimize complications associated with Morse taper junctions as hip implants and surgical techniques continue to evolve. Continue reading

Is intraarticular pathology common in patients with hip dysplasia undergoing periacetabular osteotomy?

Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) enables correction of bony acetabular deficiency in the setting of hip dysplasia. Patients with insufficient acetabular coverage often have intraarticular pathology, but the degree of this pathology has been incompletely characterized. We have used arthroscopy as an adjunct to PAO to further delineate intraarticular pathology in patients with hip dysplasia with mechanical symptoms. Continue reading

Combined hip arthroscopy and periacetabular osteotomy: indications, advantages, technique, and complications.

Evaluation and treatment of concomitant intra-articular pathology may be beneficial before periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is performed. Hip arthroscopy before PAO allows the surgeon to perform full inspection of the hip joint and can be used to treat hip pathology before osteotomy. The indications for hip arthroscopy before PAO are presented in this article. The combined surgical procedure is described, along with potential complications. The advantages and disadvantages of this technique are outlined. Continue reading

Periacetabular osteotomy and arthroscopic labral repair after failed hip arthroscopy due to iatrogenic aggravation of hip dysplasia.

Hip arthroscopy can be a successful surgery when properly indicated and performed properly. In the setting of dysplasia, arthroscopy of the hip can lead to devastating consequences. This case presents a patient who underwent hip arthroscopy despite having significant hip dysplasia. The surgery failed and was subsequently revised with a concomitant arthroscopic labral repair and periacetabular osteotomy with good results at 2-year follow-up. Continue reading

Complications of femoral nerve blockade in total knee arthroplasty and strategies to reduce patient risk.

Femoral nerve catheters are widely used for analgesia in total knee arthroplasty. Although evidence suggests that catheters improve pain control and may facilitate short-term rehabilitation, few reports exist regarding their complications. This case series explores the experience of femoral nerve catheter use at high-volume orthopedic specialty hospitals. Serious complications including compartment syndrome, periprosthetic fracture, and vascular injury are reported. The authors support femoral nerve catheter use with appropriate precautions taken to reduce risk of patient falls, vascular injury, and wrong-site surgery. Continue reading